Hướng dẫn nhanh: Bấm vào các đề tài để xem nội dung


Positives of Advertising
• Advertising is a key part of modern business.

• Companies need to tell customers about their products.

• Advertisements inform us about the choices we have.

• Advertising is a creative industry that employs many people.

• Without advertising we would have less choice.

• Without advertising there would be higher unemployment.

• Advertising is a form of modern art.

• People enjoy adverts.
Negatives of Advertising
• Advertising manipulates people.

• It aims to persuade people that buying a product will make them happier.

• Advertisers focus on selling a brand image.

• They use glamorous, successful people.

• We now live in a consumer culture.

• We are persuaded to follow the latest trend.

• We are encouraged to associate certain brands with a higher status.

• Advertisers often aim their marketing at children.

• Children can easily be influenced by advertisements.

• Children put pressure on parents to buy them things.
Opinions about Advertising
• Advertising should be regulated.

• Advertising aimed at children should be controlled or even banned.

• Unhealthy foods should not be marketed in a way that attracts children.

• Products that can be risk to healthy should display warnings In some countries it is illegal to advertise cigarettes on television.

• Warnings must be displayed on cigarette packets however, advertising is necessary in free market economies.

• It creates demand for products.

• Governments should only censor false information or products that are harmful.
Arguments for Animal testing
• Animals are used in important scientific research.

• It is necessary to do medical tests on new drugs.

• Animal testing helps to advance medical and scientific knowledge.

• Many important medical discoveries involved experimentation on animals.

• Researchers aim to minimize the suffering that animals experience.

• Testing for the cosmetics industry is now banned in many countries.
Arguments against Animal Testing
• The benefits of research using animals do not justify the suffering caused.

• There are alternative methods of research.

• The lives of animals should be respected.

• Humans have no moral right to do experiments on animals.
Arguments for Vegetarianism
• Vegetarians do not eat foods that are produced by killing animals.

• Many people choose a vegetarian diet for moral or health reasons.

• A healthy diet is possible without eating meat.

• It is unnecessary to kill animal for food.

• A vegetarian diet may reduce the risk of disease like cancer.

• Many people question the treatment of animals in factory farms.
Arguments against Vegetarianism
• Vegetarians do not eat a balanced diet.

• In many cultures, meat is the main ingredient in traditional meals.

• Meat-eaters argue that animals are below humans in the food chain.

• It is completely natural for us to kill them for food.

• It is completely natural for us to kill them for food.

• Farms should produce organic food.
Positives of Zoos
• Zoos paly an important role in wildlife conservation.

• They can help to protect endangered species.

• Zoos allow scientists to study animals and their behavior.

• Zoos are educational, interesting and fun.

• Children, in particular, enjoy learning about animals.

• Zoos provide job opportunities.
Negatives of Zoos
• Zoo animals are kept in artificial environments.

• They are kept in cages or have limited space.

• Zoo animals rely on humans.

• They lose the freedom to hunt for food.

• They best way to save endangered species is by protecting natural habitats.

• Some people believe that zoos are unethical.

• Zoos exhibits animals with the aim of making money.

• We have no right to use animals for entertainment and profit.
Reasons for Urbanization
• People move to cities in search of job opportunities.

• Cities offer greater employment possibilities and a higher standard of living.

• People migrate to cities from the countryside.

• Traditional activities like farming need fewer workers nowadays.
Negatives of City Life
• Life in cities has its drawbacks.

• The cost of living is higher than in rural areas.

• Some people not manage to find work.

• Housing is usually much more expensive.

• Homelessness and poverty are common on cities.

• There is a gap between rich and poor.

• Life in cities can be extremely stressful.

• There are problems like traffic congestion and crime.

• Cities lack a sense of community.

• People do not even know their neighbor.

• Cities are sometimes described as "concrete jungles".
Pedestrian Areas
• Pedestrian zones in city center can improve the local environment.

• Banning cars encourages people to walk or cycle.

• Many European cities have built bicycle lanes.

• Dependence on cars is linked to health problems like obesity.

• People who walk or cycle regularly are generally healthier.

• Pedestrian areas are safer and more attractive for both residents and tourists.
Police and Crime Prevention
• The job of the polices is to catch criminals.

• They must also prevent crime and make communities safer.

• There should be an increase in the number of police officers on the streets.

• Police officers should be seen as part of the community.

• They should be involved with education and prevention.

• The police should be in close contact with schools.

• They should focus on young people who have dropped out of school.

• These teenagers may become involved with gangs.
• Fines are used as punishment for minor crimes.

• If the crime is more serious, prison is the most common punishment.

• Some criminals pose a threat to society.

• They are put in prison to ensure the safety of other citizens.
Negatives of Prisons
• Criminals are put together.

• They make friends with other offenders.

• Many prisoners re-offend when they are released.

• A criminal record makes finding a job more difficult.
• Another aim of prisons is rehabilitation.

• Prisoners receive education of vocational training.

• Prisoners should learn personal skills and specific job skills.

• Punishment could make prisoners' behavior worse.

• Rehabilitation aims to make them better citizens.

• Rehabilitated prisoners are less likely to re-offend.
Capital punishment: For
• Supporters say that capital punishment deters crime.

• Fear of the death penalty stops people from committing offences.

• The death penalty shows that crime is not tolerated.

• It is a form of revenge.

• The cost of imprisonment is avoided.

• The offender cannot pose a threat to others.
Community service
• Community service is a way to reform offenders.

• It could be a solution to prison overcrowding.

• It avoids the cost of imprisonment.

• It makes offenders useful in their local communities.

• They are required to clean streets or talk to school groups.

• Offenders repay their community.

• They avoid the negative influence that prison can have.
Against community service
• Community service is not a sufficient punishment.

• Criminals should be locked up, away from their victims.
Crime in the Media
• Crime is one of the main subjects of most news programs.

• The mass media focus on violent and sensational crimes.

• This lead to fear of crime among the public.

• Sensational stories attract more viewers or readers.

• The media report crime stories in order to increase their audience.
Benefits of education
• Education gives people knowledge and skills.

• People with qualification are more likely to find work.

• They can earn a higher salary.

• They can contribute positively to society.

• Schools aim to teach young people moral values such as tolerance and sharing.

• Schools prepare children to be members of a society.
Benefits of Studying Abroad
• Foreign institutions may offer better courses.

• Many students want to attend a prestigious university.

• The best universities employ teachers who are experts in their fields.

• Qualifications gained abroad can open the door to better job opportunities.

• Living abroad can broaden students' horizons.

• Overseas students are exposed to different cultures and customs.

• They become more independent.

• They are responsible for cooking, cleaning and paying bills.

• They will learn a foreign language.
Drawbacks of studying abroad
• Living and studying abroad can be difficult.

• Students have problems with paperwork such as visa applications.

• The language barrier can be a problem.

• Students have to find accommodation and pay bills.

• Studying in a foreign language is challenging.

• Living alone in an unfamiliar culture can cause homesickness.
Technology in Education: Advantages
• Technology is a powerful tool to engage students.

• Technology can make lessons much more interesting.

• Students can do research using online resources.

• Students can study at their own place.

• Adults can take distance learning courses.

• Students can study whenever and wherever they want.

• Students also learn skills which are useful for their future jobs for example, they learn to write reports using a word processor.
Technology in Education: Disadvantages
• People rely too much on computers.

• Young learners do not become proficient in some basic skills.

• They use word processors and spelling may suffer.

• People should be able to write a letter by hand.

• Technology is no substitute for a real teacher.

• Learners need a structured course.

• An experienced teacher knows what materials to choose.

• Computers are expensive to maintain and can be unreliable.
Technology in Education: Opinion
• Institutions should supplement traditional teaching with the use of technology.

• Technology is part of everyday life.

• It can enhance a teacher's lessons.

• Students can use online resources to help with homework.

• Students must still learn to write by hand.

• They should still use traditional sources of information such as books.
Education in Developing countries: Problems
• Children often have to work from an early age.

• There are no schools in many areas.

• Families do not have access to books or computers.

• Literacy rates are often low.

• People in developing countries need knowledge and skills.

• Education is the key to improving the economy of these countries.
Education in developing countries: Solutions
• Developed countries could help developing nations by providing money.

• They could invest in schools and technology.

• They could supply the funds to build schools and pay for teachers.

• Children need to have access to free schooling.

• Computer equipment could be donated.

• The Internet can expose students to a world of knowledge and information.

• Governments should make education compulsory for all children.

• They should encourage parents to send their children to school.

• Governments of developed and developing countries must work together.
Higher education: Advantages (also see "benefits of education")
• There are many benefits to going to university.

• A degree can open the door to better employment prospects.

• Economies are becoming increasingly knowledge-based.

• Most jobs require specific knowledge and skills.

• Skilled workers are needed for sectors such as information technology and engineering.

• Repetitive manual jobs are now done by machine.

• Many factories have moved to developing countries.
Higher education: Disadvantages
• A healthy economy needs a wide range of workers.

• Some manual workers will always be needed.

• A university degree is not necessary for many service professions.

• Practical training is more important in some industries.

• In the UK, for example, there is currently a shortage of plumbers Their services are therefore becoming more and more expensive.
Advantage of Home-schooling
• Some parents decide to educate their children at home.

• Some families live in isolated areas with poor transport.

• Other parents are not satisfied with local schools.

• Parents can respond to what their children need and how they learn best.

• One-to-one lessons allow much faster progress.

• The child can work at his or her own pace.

• Discipline problems are avoided by home-schooling.
Disadvantages of Home-schooling
• Most parents do not have the time to educate their children at home.

• One parent would need to give up work.

• School subjects are normally taught by up to ten different teachers.

• Most parents do not have the necessary knowledge or resources.

• Private tutors are expensive.

• Children will miss out on the social experience that school offers.

• At school, children learn how to get on with each other.

• Home-schooled children may lack social skills.

• Schools offer a better overall educational experience.
Bad behavior in schools: Causes
• Bad behavior is due to a lack of structure and discipline.

• There are too many children in some classes.

• Large classes are difficult to manage.

• May disruptive students come from an unstable family background.

• Other parents are too lenient and spoil their children.

• Some children are used to getting whatever they want.

• Schools can do very little if they are not supported by parents.
Bad behavior in schools: Solutions
• Schools need a clear code of conduct.

• Schools need a clear set of rules about behavior.

• They need to create a positive working atmosphere.

• Teachers must have the power to punish disruptive students.

• Schools should remove difficult children from lessons.

• Schools need to work closely with parents.

• Discipline could be lacking at home.

• Parents must support the school rules.

• They should take responsibility for their children's behavior.
Corporal Punishment: Opinion
• Corporal Punishment is not a good idea.

• Physical punishment is a way of controlling children using fear.

• This does not promote trust between adults and children.

• Children who are punished physically may become shy or resentful.

• Corporal punishment creates an atmosphere of fear and anger.
Single Sex Education: Advantages
• Some people believe that male and female students should go to separate schools.

• This is often for religious or cultural reasons.

• Discipline problems might be avoided by separating boys and girls.

• Boys and girls may learn in different ways and have different needs.

• Student at single-sex schools often get better exam grades.
Single-sex Education: Disadvantages
• Separating boys and girls is unnecessary.

• It is unhealthy in terms of children's social development.

• Many coeducational schools are extremely successful.

• A mixed-sex environment is more representative of real life.

• Coeducational schools provide children with better social skills for adult life.
Advantages of Streaming (grouping children according to ability)
• Some schools separate students according to their academic ability.

• Teachers can work at the right speed for their students.

• Teachers can plan more suitable lessons.

• High-level groups may progress faster.

• Lower level groups can benefits from a slower pace.

• Some teachers and parents support streaming for these reasons.
Disadvantages of Streaming
• Grouping by ability may have a negative impact on students.

• Children do not want to be seen as less intelligent than others.

• Streaming could damage students' self-esteem.

• They may lose motivation.

• Students from wealthier families tend to be better prepared.

• Children from poorer families may receive less support from parents.

• Mixed ability classes encourage everyone to achieve their potential.
Environment Global warming
• Gases such as carbon dioxide trap heat from the sun.

• This causes global temperatures to rise.

• This process is known as the greenhouse effect.

• Human activity is a major factor in the rise of the greenhouse gases.

• Factories and vehicles produce emissions and exhaust fumes.

• Many developing countries are becoming industrialized.

• The number of cars on our streets is growing.

• Cheap air travel is allowing more people to fly.
Effects of Global Warming
• Global warming will have a significant impact on our planet.

• Rising temperature will cause melting of the polar ice caps.

• Sea levels will rise.

• We can expect more extreme weather conditions.

• Flooding and droughts may become more common.
Impacts of humans on the environment
• The increasing world population is putting pressure on natural resources.

• Fossil fuels like oil and gas are running out.

• We are destroying wildlife habitats.

• We have cut down enormous areas of rainforest.

• This has led to the extinction of many species of animals and plants.
Solutions to environment problems
• Governments could introduce laws to limit emissions from factories.

• They should invest in renewable energy from solar, wind or water power.

• They could impose "green taxes" on drivers and airlines companies.

• Government campaigns should promote recycling.

• Natural areas and wild animals should be protected.

• Individuals should also try to be greener.

• We should take fewer flights abroad for holidays.

• We should take public transport rather than driving.

• We should choose products with less packaging.

• We should recycle as much as possible.
• The amount of waster we produce has increased.

• This problem is a result of our consumer culture.

• Products are not made to last.

• If something breaks, we throw it away and buy a new one.

• Advertisers encourage is to buy the newest fashions.

• Packaging is an important part of selling.

• Most foods are sold in non-biodegradable plastics packaging.

• The amount of household waste is growing.

• The amount of household waste is growing.
Litter / Littering
• People do not think about the consequences of dropping rubbish.

• They assume that somebody is pad to clean the street.

• Plastic packaging does not break down easily.

• Most of the litter seen on streets is fast food packaging.
Solutions to Littering: Recycling and other solutions
• Companies should make goods that last longer.

• They should not use so much packaging.

• Governments should be stricter, about waster produced by companies.

• They should put legal limits on packaging.

• Consumers should avoid buying over-packaged products.

• We should recycle and reuse useful materials.

• There are collection banks for glass, paper and plastic bottles.

• Households can use several rubbish bins to separate waste.

• Recycling saves energy and raw materials.
Nuclear Power: Positives
• There are several benefits to build more nuclear power stations.

• Fossil fuel like oil and gas are running out.

• Nuclear power is a sustainable energy source

• It can be used to produce electricity without wasting natural resources.

• It could be replace the use of natural resources like coal, oil or gas.

• Nuclear power stations are cleaner than fossil fuel power stations.

• They could help to reduce carbon emissions that cause global warming.

• The risks of accidents are being reduced.
Nuclear Power: Negatives
• Opponents of nuclear power worry about the safety of power stations.

• The building of new nuclear power stations is unpopular.

• Nobody wants to live near one.

• Nuclear waste disposal is a significant problem.

• There is currently no way to decontaminate radioactive material.

• People worry that terrorists could steal radioactive materials.

• It is safer to produce energy from solar, wind or water power.
Family size
• Families in many countries are not as large as they used to be.

• We tend to live in small nuclear families rather than large extended families.

• Parents tend to have fewer children.

• Young children are no longer expected to work.

• Nowadays both parents often work.

• It costs so much to bring children up.

• It is more difficult to raise a large family.
Working parents (also see "gender" topic)
• Children and their parents seem to be less close nowadays.

• Parents spend less time with their children.

• Women traditionally stayed at home to cook, clean and look after children.

• Nowadays both parents often work full time.

• Children may be left alone, or with nannies or babysitters.

• Busy parents have less contact with their children.

• Many families no longer eat meals together.

• Children spend more time with friends or surfing the Internet.
Negative effects on Children
• The lack of closeness in families can have a negative effect on children.

• Many parents have no idea how their children spend their time.

• Friends, television and the Internet become the main influence on children's behavior.

• Teenagers are influenced by peer pressure.

• Some of them join gangs.

• Juvenile delinquency is on the increase.

• Parents should be more involved with their children's upbringing.

• Young people need positive role models.
• In the past, divorce was unacceptable.

• It was considered to be embarrassing for a family.

• People stayed together for religious or family reasons.

• Divorce is more socially acceptable nowadays.

• It has become much more common.

• Divorce can be extremely stressful.

• Lone parents may face financial difficulties.

• Many single parents have to rely on benefits paid by the state.

• Divorce can have a negative effect on children.

• Children from single-parent families are more likely to get lower grades or drop out of school.

• The rise in divorce rates may be connected to some social problems.
Care for Old people
• Caring for elderly people was traditionally the responsibility of families.

• Adults had to look after their elderly parents.

• A woman's job was to stay at home taking care of her family.

• Nowadays, fewer elderly people are looked after by their relatives.

• Residential homes provide care for large number of elderly people.

• Some families are unable to look after elderly relatives.

• Families tend to be smaller these days, and women often have full-time jobs.

• Cares homes provide a professional service for senior citizens.

• Nurses are better trained than family members.
Care for Old people: Opinion
• The best form of care for the elderly depends on the family situation.

• It depends on whether family members have the time resources.

• We all have a responsibility towards the older people in our society.

• Governments should invest money in facilities and training for care workers.
Gender and education
• Men and women should have access to the same educational opportunities.

• Males and females should be accepted onto courses according to their abilities.

• It is wrong to discriminate against students because of their gender.

• Gender should be irrelevant in education.

• Student's achievements should depend on hard work and individual merit.

• In the UK, there are similar numbers of male and female students in higher education.
Gender and work
• Men and women should have access to the same professional opportunities.

• Both man and women should be able to pursue a career.

• They should earn equal salaries

• They should be employed according to their abilities, qualifications and experience.

• Traditionally women have been restricted to certain roles.

• They were often employed as secretaries or receptionists.

• Nowadays, a range of occupations is available to both sexes.

• Career success depends on individual merit.
Women's and Men's roles in the Family
• Some people argue that a mother should not work.

• She should stay at home and bring up her children.

• The father should be the breadwinner of the family.

• Others believe that both parents should share these responsibilities.

• Working women can take maternity leave during and after pregnancy.

• Many mothers continue to work after this period.

• Many fathers and mothers share their parenting and domestic responsibilities.

• They contribute equally to childcare, cooking and cleaning.

• Some women many have better career prospects than their husbands.

• Paternity leave and "househusbands" are becoming more common.

• Traditional gender roles and gradually changing.

• Families can divide roles and responsibilities in the most convenient way.
Positives of genetic engineering
• Genetic engineering is the practice of manipulating the genes of an organism.

• It is used to produce crops that are more resistant to insects and diseases.

• Some genetically modified crops grow more quickly.

• Some drugs and vaccines are produced by genetic engineering.

• It may become possible to change human's genetic characteristics.

• Scientists may use genetic engineering to cure diseases.

• Inherited illnesses would no longer exist.

• Genes could be changed before a baby is born.

• It could also be possible to clone human organs.

• We could all have replacement body part.

• Humans could live longer, healthier lives.
Negatives of genetic engineering
• There are ethical concerns about human genetic engineering.

• Parents might want to choose their children's characteristics.

• This would be unnatural.

• It would be unacceptable in most religions.

• Soldiers could be cloned from the genes of the strongest people.

• Clones might be used like robots to do certain jobs.

• Clones might even be developed just for organ replacements.

• Society and human evolution would change completely.

• Currently, human genetic engineering is prohibited.
Genetically-Modified (GM) foods: Advantages
• Farmers can produce crops that grow bigger and faster.

• Some GM crops are more resistant to disease or insects.

• This could be important for food production in developing countries.

• Faster growing cereals, fruit and vegetables will mean more profit.

• GM foods can be modified to look perfect.

• They may be more attractive to customers.
Genetically-Modified (GM) Foods: Disadvantages
• There may be risks involved in the genetic engineering of foods.

• GM crops might change whole ecosystems.

• Food chains could be broken if crops are resistant to predators.

• Organic foods are produced without chemicals or genetic modification.

• Organic farming may be slower and more expensive however, the environment is not damaged by fertilizers or pesticides.
Problems in developing countries
• Developing countries face a range if problems.

• Standards of healthcare and education are low.

• Life expectancy is usually lower than in developed countries.

• There is a lack of infrastructure, employment and good quality housing.

• Many people are forced to live in poverty.

• Food, drinking water and basic medicines are in short supply.

• How to help developing countries.

• The best form of help for developing countries is development aid.

• Richer nations can help by investing in long-term projects.

• Governments and charities can help by building new houses and schools.

• Globalization may also help developing countries.

• Multi-national companies can creating jobs in developing countries.

• On the other hand, many people emigrate to find work in richer countries.

• They often sand money back home to their families.

• This money helps to improve the standard of living in developing countries.
• Some people move to another countries in search of a better life.

• Many immigrants come from less developed countries.

• Richer, industrialized countries may offer opportunities for employment.

• Free healthcare and schooling are available in some developed countries.

• Other people migrate to a foreign country to improve their academic qualifications.
Positives of immigration and Multi-cultural societies
• From an economic perspective, immigration can be extremely positive.

• Many immigrants have skills that are needed in the country they move to.

• Immigrants who find work contribute to the economy of their new country.

• Many immigrants send money home to help family members.

• Immigration also creates cultural diversity.

• People of many different nationalities learn to live together.

• This can help people to become more open-minded and tolerant.
Negatives of Immigration
• Some people believe that immigrants take jobs that should go to local people.

• Some immigrant workers work longer hours for less money.

• Companies might pay lower salaries to immigrant workers.

• Unemployment rates could rise if there are too many immigrants
Opinions about Immigration
• Immigration can help the economy of a country.

• It can create multi-cultural societies however, immigration needs to be controlled

• In many countries, immigrants need visas or work permit.

• Governments should stop companies from exploiting immigrant workers.

• Foreign and local workers should have the right to equal pay and conditions.
Positives of Globalization
• Business of becoming increasingly international.

• Multi-national companies do business across the world.

• Companies like MacDonald's can be seen on high streets in most cities.

• Goods are produced in one country and sold in many others.

• A global economy means free trade between countries.

• This can strengthen political relationships.

• Globalization can also create opportunities for employment.

• It encourages investment in less developed countries.

• It could reduce poverty in the developing world.
Negatives of Globalization
• Globalization is not always beneficial to everyone.

• Companies can move to countries where labor is cheap.

• This creates redundancies, or job losses.

• Employees cannot be confident that they have stable jobs.

• Companies sometimes exploit their employees in developing countries.

• Global trade creates more waste and pollution.
The future of Globalization
• There should be global regulations for salaries and working conditions.

• Governments should impose laws to protect the environment.
What governments can do
• Governments provide public services like healthcare and education.

• They support people who are living in poverty or unable to work.

• Governments raise money by taxing working people.

• They can spend money on resources and campaigns.

• They can introduce new laws.

• They can impose taxes.

• They can raise people's awareness of issues (e.g. climate change/healthy eating).

• They can influence people's habits and opinions.

• They can create jobs.

• They can regulate the activities of companies such as banks.

• They can provide resources for schools.

• They are also responsible for the security and well-being of their citizens.

• They control armed forces and police forces
Public services
• Governments pay the salaries of public sector workers like police officers and teachers.

• The necessary money is raised by taxing people's income.

• Free education and healthcare may be provided by the state.

• Some governments control public transport systems and even TV channels.

• In other countries, these services are provided by private companies.

• Some people believe that competition between private companies is good.

• It helps to improve quality while bringing prices down.

• Other people think that essential services should be free.

• Governments should pay for them.
Censorship: Opinion
• Governments can censor what public sees or reads in the media.

• To a certain extent censorship is necessary.

• We should use censorship to protect children from violent images.

• Some computer games involve killing people or committing crimes.

• The Internet also needs to be controlled.

• Many websites show pornography and violence.

• There should be age limits for websites and computers games.

• Parents need to take responsibility for checking what their children watch.

• It is impossible for governments to control everything we see.

• Video cameras in public places.

• The use of CCTV is becoming widespread.

• Video cameras have been installed in many public places.

• They are supposed to protect us and deter criminals.

• Many people think that this surveillance violates our privacy.

• The authorities could build databases with our pictures and identities.

• We should not be treated like criminals.
Smart cards: Positives
• Governments will probably introduce a digital identification card system.

• Smart cards will have benefits and drawbacks.

• They could help to reduce crime.

• They could hold personal information, such as DNA.

• Digital bank cards could contain fingerprint information.

• It would be very difficult for criminals to use a stolen card.

• It would be easier for police to identify people and catch criminals.
Smart cards: Negatives
• Many people are worried about losing their privacy.

• Governments could store all our personal and medical information.

• This information could be used by insurance companies.

• Employers could check our health records.
People with Disabilities
• People with disabilities should be treated the same as everybody else.

• They should have the same rights as other people.

• They should have access to the same jobs as other citizens.

• Discriminations against disabled people is illegal in many countries.

• Ramps and lifts for wheelchairs should be installed in public buildings.

• Support teacher can be employed to help children with learning difficulties.
Why guns should be legal:
• In some countries, people are allowed to own firearms.

• Individuals have the right to protect themselves.

• People can use guns in self defense.

• This deters criminals.
Why gun ownership should be illegal:
• There is a risk of accidents with guns.

• The number of violent crimes increases when guns are available.

• Criminals may be armed.

• The police then need to use guns.

• Suicide rates have been shown to rise when guns are available.

• Guns create violent societies with high murder rates.

• Why polices should use guns.

• Many criminals use weapons.

• The threat of a gun can deter criminals.

• Police officers can forces a criminal to surrender.

• It is easier to arrest someone and avoid physical violence.

• The police may shoot violent criminals in self-defense.

• They can protect the public.

• They can shoot an escaping criminal who poses a serious danger to the public.

• Why police should not carry guns.

• There is a risk of accidents and mistakes.

• The police might shoot an unarmed criminal or an innocent person.

• Accidents can happen in public places.

• There are several alternatives to guns (e.g. tear gas, sprays and electric shock weapons).

• Only special police units should use guns.
Arm Trade: Positives
• The export of arms, or weapons, is an extremely controversial issue.

• Governments of rich, industrialized countries sell arms to each other.

• This industry creates jobs and wealth.

• The trade of weapons may improve relationships between governments.
Arms Trade: Negatives
• Weapons may be used in conflicts and wars.

• The supply of arms could be responsible for deaths.

• Governments are promoting war in order to make a profit.

• Rich countries can influence the politics of other nations.
Nuclear weapons
• Nuclear weapons are capable of destroying whole cities.

• A nuclear war between two countries would destroy both countries.

• Nuclear weapons are used as a deterrent.

• They prevent wars from starting.
Nuclear weapons: Opinion
• Nuclear weapons should be prohibited.

• Governments should limit the production of nuclear weapons.

• There is a danger of nuclear weapons being obtained by terrorists.

• Nuclear weapons cannot be used against terrorist organizations.
Armed Forces: Positives
• Armed forces provide security and protection.

• They deter military attack by another country.

• They can also be sued to maintain peace within countries.

• They can be sued to give the police extra support.

• Soldiers are also used to help in emergency situations, such as after a natural disaster.
Armed forces: Negatives
• Armies require a lot of funding from governments.

• Too much money is spent on weapons and military technology.

• This money could be spent on schools, hospitals and other public services
Health Diet
• The human body requires a balanced diet.

• An unhealthy diet can cause various health problems.

• Obesity, diabetes and heart disease are on the increase.

• Many people nowadays rely on fast food or pre-prepared meals.

• These foods often contain too much fat, salt and sugar.

• They are cheap to buy and very easy to prepare.

• Many young people have grown up on a diet of convenience foods.

• Populations in developed countries are increasingly overweight.
• Regular exercise is essential in maintaining a healthy body.

• Exercise burns calories and helps to build healthy bones and muscles.

• Doctors advise exercising at least three times a week for 20 minutes.

• Most people nowadays lead a sedentary lifestyle.

• We tend to walk less and do desk jobs.

• Most adults relax by watching television.

• Children play video games rather than doing outdoor sports.

• In the past, people were more active in their jobs and at home.
Government's Role
• Governments have a significant role to play in reducing obesity.

• More and more people, including young children are seriously overweight.

• They are at risk of heart disease and diabetes.

• This situation will increase the burden on hospitals and taxpayers.

• Hospitals rely on the government for money and resources.

• Governments should promote a healthy diet and regular exercise.

• There should be more time for sports on school timetables.

• Unhealthy junk food should be banned from school menus.

• People need information about what foods contain.

• Food packaging must show the food's nutritional content.

• The British Government recommends eating five portions of fruit and vegetables per day.
State Health system: advantages
• Good healthcare should be available to everyone for free.

• State healthcare is paid by the government using money from taxes.

• Everyone has access to the same quality of care and treatment.

• Private healthcare is unfair because only wealthy people can afford it.

• The National Health Service in the UK provides free healthcare for every resident.
Private Healthcare: advantages
• State hospitals are often very large and difficult to run.

• Private hospitals have shorter waiting lists for operations and appointments.

• Patients can benefit from faster treatment.

• Many people prefer to pay for more a personal service.

• Patients have their own room and more comfortable facilities.
Alternative medicine: Positives
• People are increasingly using alternative medicines to treat illnesses for example, acupuncture can be used to treat backache.

• Herbal medicines can be used to treat allergies or viruses.

• Many patients report positive experiences with these treatments.

• Some traditional cures have been used for hundreds of years.
Alternative medicine: Negatives
• Many alternative medicines have not been tested scientifically.

• They may have no beneficial effect at all.

• They may cause unknown side effects.

• People should trust the opinions of qualified doctors.

• An illness could get worse without treatment from a doctor.
• Modern lifestyles are increasingly stressful.

• People work long hours with strict deadlines.

• Our busy lifestyles mean we have less time to relax.

• Unemployment is a major cause of stress.

• Children may be affected by their parents' relationship problems.

• Tests and exams can also cause stress.
How to reduce stress
• Stress can be reduced by taking regular exercise and eating a healthy diet.

• It is also important to get sufficient sleep and make leisure time a priority.

• People should work less overtime and take regular holidays.

• Schools have started to employ psychologists.

• They can offer emotional support to students.

• They can help students to cope with exam stress.
Housing and Architecture State / Council housing
• In some countries the government provides state or council housing.

• This helps people who cannot afford to buy their own house.

• It can be argued that state housing creates dependence on the government.

• People should be rely on the government to look after them.

• People have no incentive to earn money and buy their own home.

• Council properties are often made with cheap, poor-quality materials.
Old Buildings
• Historic buildings are part of a country's heritage.

• They should be protected.

• Old buildings are often considered to be works of art.

• They give character to cities and attract tourists.

• They show us how people lived in the past.

• We identify countries by architectural symbols like the pyramids in Egypt Governments should spend money on looking after historic buildings.

• They need regular repairs and maintenance.

• New buildings should be designed to complement them.
Modern/green buildings
• Modern buildings should be designed to be environmentally friendly.

• They should use less energy and produce less waste.

• Modern insulation can make houses more energy-efficient.

• Solar and wind power can be used to generate electricity.

• Rainwater and waste water can be recycled and used to flush toilets.

• Modern glass buildings take advantage if natural light.
English as an international language
• English is widely used around the world.

• It is becoming a global second language.

• It is the dominant language of technology, science and international business.

• International business meetings are regularly held in English.

• The most important textbooks and journals are published in English.

• The ability to speak English is a necessary skill in the modern world.
Negative of English as an International Language
• If one language is dominant, other languages may disappear.

• The dominant language brings its own culture.

• American culture has become popular around the world.

• Other cultures may be damaged.

• As an alternative to English, a new global language could be invented.

• It would have no nationality or culture attached to it.

• This could help to promote international peace and understanding.

• Esperanto is an example of a language that was invented with this aim.
Money and Society
• Society has become increasingly materialistic.

• People aspire to earn more money.

• They want a bigger house or a better car.

• We connect wealth and material possessions with happiness and success.

• Brands like "Armani" or "Mercedes" are status symbols.

• Advertising creates new desires and needs.

• It persuades us to buy the latest styles.
Positives of Consumerism
• Consumerism creates employment.

• It helps to reduce poverty.

• It encourages innovation and creativity in business.

• We live in a global economy.

• We have a better quality of life.
Negatives of Consumerism
• Consumerist societies create more waste.

• They use more natural resources.

• They cause damage to the environment.

• Consumerism creates a "throw-away" culture.

• Advertisers tell us who we are and what we want.

• Wealth does not lead to happiness.

• Materialism causes greed and crime.

• We should return to traditional values like sharing.
Personality & Happiness
• Happiness means different things to different people.

• It can be described as a feeling of pleasure or enjoyment.

• People enjoy spending time with family and friends.

• Hobbies, sports and games can be a source of fun and enjoyment.

• Some people see money as a source of happiness.

• Other people define happiness as something deeper.

• In order to be truly happy it is necessary to live a good life.

• We need to feel that we are doing something useful with our lives.

• Some people get a sense of achievement from their work.

• Others find happiness in bringing up their children.

• Religion or a sense of purpose can also be a source of happiness.
• People define success in different ways.

• Some people get a sense of achievement from raising a family.

• For others, success is defined by wealth or status.

• We often think of rich and famous people as being successful in life.

• Millionaires like Bill Gates are considered to be successful.

• They have risen to the top in their chosen professions.

• For some, being successful means achieving personal or professional goals.

• They see success as the result of hard work.

• Success in any field requires long-term planning and effort.
Nature or Nurture
• Some people believe that our personalities are determined mainly by genetics.

• We inherit our abilities and talents from our parents.

• Others think that our education and upbringing are more important.

• We develop according to the influences around us.

• Our personalities and achievements depend more on nurture than nature.

• Many people argue that we control our own destinies.

• We can shape our own personalities.

• By working hard we can achieve and goal that we put our minds to.

• Many successful people are "self-made".

• We are not limited by our genetic characteristic or upbringing.
Arguments against Professional/competitive sport
• Sport has become a business.

• Professional sport encourages people to compete for money.

• Many sports stars are only concerned about money and fame.

• Some athletes take drugs in order to win at any cost.

• Competitors are often selfish and rude.

• They are not good role models for children.

• All sports should be amateur.

• Sports should be leisure activities rather than jobs.

• People should do sporting activities for enjoyment and health reasons.

• Taking part is more important than winning.
Arguments for Professional sport
• Professional sports are the same as any other business.

• Many people are employed in the sports industry.

• People should be able to use their talents to earn a salary.

• Sports stars entertain millions of people.

• Money is necessary to improve facilities and train athletes.

• The level of professional sport is much higher than that of amateur sport.
Arguments for Competitive sport
• Competition is a natural instinct in humans.

• In daily life we compete to get jobs or the highest grades.
Sports are a safe form of competition
• Competition is healthy because it pushes us to give our best.

• Competitors and fans can release energy and aggression.

• Supporters of teams feel a sense of belonging to a community.

• Opinion: professional sport salaries are too high.

• Sports professionals earn too much money.

• They do not provide a vital service.

• Football players, for example, earn enormous salaries by simply kicking a ball.

• We could all live happily without professional football.

• Life would be difficult without doctors, engineers and other vital professionals.

• Society does not seem to value these professions as highly as professional sport.

• Sports salaries should be compatible with the wages most people earn.
Opinion: professional sport salaries are fair
• It is fair that the best professional earn a lot of money.

• Sport is a multi-million-pound industry.

• There is a large audience of sports fans.

• Sports on television attract many viewers.

• Sports stars have dedicated hours of practice to developing their fitness and skills.

• Only the most talented among them will reach the top.

• A sports career many only last 10 years.

• Sports fans are willing to pay to support their teams.
Sports and Politics
• Some people think that sport and politics should remain separate.

• Governments are involved in the hosting of sporting events such as the Olympics..

• These events attract investment and create jobs.

• The Olympic Games are an advertisement for the host nation.

• They attract huge numbers of visitors and sports fans.

• Wealthy countries tend to hold these events.

• Developing countries should be given the chance to become hosts.
Positives of Television
• Watching television is a good way to relax.

• It is many people's favorite way to wind down after a hard day at work.

• Television programs can be entertaining and enjoyable.

• Viewers have access to a huge variety of entertainment channels.

• Television brings the best comedians, musicians and actors into our homes.

• Programmers can also be informative and educational.

• News coverage makes the public aware of events around the world.

• Documentaries can make learning more interesting.
Negatives of Television
• Television is having a negative impact on society.

• Some people link violence on television with crime rates in the real world.

• Children copy the behavior they see on the screen.

• Children are less healthy because they spend less time playing.

• Advertisers direct their marketing at children.

• Most programs do not require much thought.

• Watching TV is a waste of time.
Opinions about Television
• Television has many benefits however, it can be addictive.

• Children should play outside rather than sit in front of a screen all day.

• Behavior shown on TV can influence people.

• Parents should choose carefully what their children watch.

• Children should not be exposed to violence, swearing or sexual images.

• Advertising during children's programs should be strictly controlled.

• TV companies should make more positive, educational programs.
Positives of the Internet
• There are many advantages to using the Internet.

• It gives us instant access to information on almost any subject.

• Shops and other services are now available online.

• People can buy goods and services from the comfort of their homes.

• The Internet is starting to replace other forms of entertainment.

• It has revolutionized communication.

• We can keep in touch by email or instant messenger services.

• Video messaging is becoming common for business meetings.
Negatives of the internet
• Many websites contain offensive content.

• Some sites show violent or sexual images.

• Parents find it difficult to control what their children see online.

• They do not always know who their children are chatting to.

• With so many websites it is difficult to search for good information.

• Criminals increasingly use the Internet to steal people's money.

• Internet compared to newspaper and books.

• Newspapers and books are now published online as well as in print.

• We can read the news in any language from any country in the world It costs nothing to publish or access information on the Internet.

• The Internet allows anybody to publish their own writing.

• Newspaper articles and books are written by professionals.

• Professionals produce better quality writing than amateur.

• People still buy newspapers and books because they are portable.

• People do not like reading from a screen.
Positives of Mobile Phones
• The mobile phone is the most popular gadget in today's world.

• Mobile phones have revolutionized the way we communicate.

• We can stay in touch with family, friends and colleagues wherever we are.

• Users can send text messages, surf the Internet, take photos and listen to music.

• Mobiles have also become fashion accessories.
Negatives of Mobile Phones
• Mobiles phones can be a problem in some public places.

• Ringing phones cause disturbance in cinemas and school lessons.

• Some people are not aware that others can hear their conversations.

• Mobile phones may also interfere with electronic equipment.

• Their waves could cause damage to our brains.

• Mobile phones can also be a dangerous distraction.

• Using a phone while driving reduces the driver's concentration.

• Mobile phones are a popular target for thieves.
Opinion about Mobile Phones
• The benefits of mobile phones outweigh the drawbacks.

• We need to use these phones with care.
Positives of Tourism
• Tourism is a popular leisure activity.

• People go on holiday to relax and have fun.

• Tourists can experience different cultures.

• They can sunbathe on beaches or go sight-seeing.

• Travelling abroad opens our minds.

• We can learn to speak other languages.

• The tourist trade is vital for some economies.

• It creates employment in services like accommodation, transport and entertainment.

• Some areas rely on tourism for their income.

• Tourists spend money.

• Tourism attracts investment from multi-national companies.

• It helps to improve the standard of living.

• Low-cost airlines are making it cheaper to travel abroad.
Negative effects of tourism
• Tourism can have a negative effect on the natural environment.

• The building of facilities and infrastructure can destroy the habitat of wild animals.

• Beautiful beaches are spoilt by the building of hotels.

• Tourism creates pollution and waste.

• It puts pressure on local resources.

• Local traditional and cultures may be endangered.

• A rise in the cost of living affects local people.

• The price of goods, services and housing may increase significantly.
The future of tourism
• Government should introduce laws to protect natural environments and local cultures.

• Tourism should have a low impact on wildlife.

• Renewable resources like solar or water power should be used.

• Waste should be recycled.

• Local businesses such as farms should be supported.
Traditional vs Modern Losing traditional skills
• Because of industrialization and global trade, many traditions have disappeared.

• Global advertising encourages everyone to buy the same products.

• Most products are now made in factories.

• Machinery has replaced skilled human labor.

• Factory work is boring and leaves people feeling unfulfilled.

• Goods are produced very quickly and in large numbers.

• Products are cheaper, which means that more people can buy them.

• Examples clothes are mass produced in standard size.

• People wear similar clothes, rather than traditional costume.

• Jeans and T-shirt are now worn throughout the world.

• Historic buildings took skilled craftsmen years to build.

• Modern concrete, steel and glass buildings are built in only weeks or months.

• There are fewer people who can create hand-made goods.
Traditional customs
• Traditional customs are still important during weddings and religious festivals.

• People wear traditional costumers and eat special foods.

• It is important to maintain our different cultural identities.

• We should celebrate festivals, teach traditional skills and protect historic places.
Traffic problems
• Traffic congestion is caused by commuters travelling to work.

• Most people live in the suburbs outside city center.

• Commuters tend to travel at the same time of day.

• They tend to travel alone.

• Cars and road space are not used efficiently.

• This causes traffic jams during the rush hour.
Traffic solutions
• In order to reduce traffic we should change our working habits.

• The internet can now be used to connect people.

• More people could work from home.

• Meetings can be held as video conferences.

• Workers could be given flexible timetables.

• Another solution would be to tax drivers.

• Workers should share their cars and travel together.

• In London, for example, there is a congestion charge.

• This helps to raise money for better public transport.

• Public transport needs to be reliable and efficient.
Positives of Public transport
• We need to reduce our dependence on cars.

• Parking a car can be extremely difficult in big cities.

• Well-designed transport systems are comfortable and convenient.

• Modern public transport can be fast and cheap.

• Public transport can help to reduce pollution in cities.

• Investment in buses and trains will ease traffic congestion.

• Buses can be given special lands to avoid traffic.
Negatives of Public transport
• Public transport if often slow and unreliable.

• Metro systems and trains are often dirty and crowded.

• People feel like "sardines in a car".

• Cars are much more comfortable.
Road safety
• Driving while tired or drunk is extremely dangerous.

• Mobile phones can be a dangerous distraction for drivers.

• They draw the driver's attention away from the road.

• The use of phones while driving has been banned in many countries.

• Punishments are becoming stricter.

• Television campaigns are used to remind people to drive safely.

• Speed cameras have become more common.

• Speed bumps are another form of traffic calming.

• Many streets are designed with the aim of slowing traffic down.
Importance of clean water
• Water is as necessary natural resource.

• Humans need access to clean, safe drinking water in order to live.

• Poor water quality is a major cause of disease and death in some countries.

• Water usually needs to be treated before we can drink it.

• Developing countries often lack the means to treat and supply water to citizens.

• Developed countries tend to have much better sanitation.

• Citizens have access to clean tap water.

• Drinking water is not contaminated by sewage or waste water.

• The supply of clean water would improve public health in many developing countries.
Water supply
• Urban life would be impossible without water supply systems.

• These systems are massive engineering projects.

• Many professionals are involved in their planning, construction and maintenance.

• The supply and distribution of water are major concerns.

• Water is becoming scarce in some countries.

• Areas that suffer droughts often need to import water.

• As populations grow, there is more pressure on water supplies.

• This could lead to a water crisis.
Water and politics
• The supply of water is also an important political issue.

• Huge amount of water are needed for agriculture and industry.

• The irrigation of crops accounts for a large proportions of water use.

• A water crisis could lead to political conflicts or even wars.
Argument for: Water should be free
• Some people believe that water should be free for everyone.

• Governments should supply water to all homes at no cost.

• Private companies should not be allowed to profit from this natural resource.

• Money from taxes can be used to pay for water supply systems.
Argument against: Water should not be free
• If water is free, people take it for granted.

• They do not think about how much water they waste.

• They leave taps running while washing or brushing their teeth.

• If we have to pay for water, we will use it more responsibly.

• Water supply systems are extremely expensive.

• Investment is needed to maintain and improve them.

• Private companies may provide a better service than governments.

• If they provide an efficient service, they will make more money.

• They will repair leaks to avoid losing money.
Bottled Water: Opinions
• Some people carry bottles of water wherever they go for example, they take bottles of water to work or to the gym.

• They believe that bottled water is healthier than tap water.

• They also argue that it tastes better however, other people believe that we should consume less bottled water.

• Plastic water bottles add to litter and waste problems.

• Companies should not be able to make a profit from water.

• It is unethical to make money by selling packaged water.

• There is no difference in quality between bottled and tap water.
The benefits of staying in the same job for life
• Employees have a stable career with one employer.

• They have a good pension and health insurance.

• Their salaries gradually increase.

• They may be promoted within the organization.

• They demonstrate loyalty.

• Experienced staff can be trusted with more responsibility.

• They become part of a team.

• There is a clearly defined path for development.

• The benefits of not staying in the same job.

• People often change jobs in order to further their career.

• Another company may offer a promotion or a higher salary.
The benefits of changing jobs
• People who change jobs can gain experience.

• They can learn different skills.

• Changing jobs is interesting and challenging.

• People can retrain in a different occupation.

• In a fast-changing world workers need to be flexible.

• People need to develop a range of experience and skills.
• Nowadays, it is easy to set up a company.

• The Internet provides a global marketplace.

• Self-employment offers greater freedom than working for a company however, there are risks to starting a new business.

• Self-employed people may face financial difficulties.

• Many businesses fail to make a profit.

• There is less stability in self-employment.

• There are no benefits like pensions, sick pay and holiday pay.

• Self-employment involved hard work, long hours and total responsibility.
• Unemployment is a big problem for individuals, communities and society.

• Some people are unable to find a job.

• They may not have the sufficient level of education or qualifications.

• They may find themselves homeless.

• Unemployment causes frustration and stress.

• Jobless people may become involved in crime as a means to get money.

• The unemployed need careers advice.

• Governments need to provide vocational courses and retraining.
Unemployment benefits: positives
• Some governments pay unemployment benefits in order to help jobless people.

• Unemployed people need financial support until they find a new job.

• By claiming benefits they can continue to pay for their homes.

• The benefits system helps to reduce poverty, homelessness and crime.
Unemployment benefits: negatives
• Some people claim benefits rather than working.

• They become dependent on the government.

• They are not motivated to find a job.

• The benefits system is a burden on taxpayers.

• All citizens should work to earn a living and support themselves.

• Receiving benefits affects people's self-esteem.
Work/Life Balance
• It is important to achieve a balance between work time and leisure or family time.

• Too much work can result in stress and poor health “workaholics" may neglect their families and friends.

• People need to take regular holidays.

• Companies should be expect employees to work overtime.

• Nowadays, many people work part-time or have flexible working hours.

• Technology allow people to work from home.

• Many companies provide childcare facilities.

• A good work/ life balance can raise job satisfaction.

• Happy, healthy workers are more productive.
Technology and work
• Internet, fax and mobile phone technologies have revolutionized working life.

• Workers can communicate via email, online networks and video conferencing.

• Technology can connect workers in different countries.

• It gives people more freedom It can also save time and money.

• Some people believe that offices could disappear in the future.

• Virtual online offices may replace them.
Child labor
• In some countries, children are exploited.

• They do repetitive jobs for very low pay.

• Children are often used in agriculture and factory work.

• The employment of children is prohibited in other countries.

• Many people think that children should be free to enjoy their childhood.

• Governments should make education a priority.

• They should build new schools.

• They should supply the resources to educate children.

• Children need to be given the knowledge and skills for adult life.

Last modified: Friday, 21 February 2020, 9:09 PM