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Positives of Advertising
• Advertising is a key part of modern business.
• Companies need to tell customers about their products.
• Advertisements inform us about the choices we have.
• Advertising is a creative industry that employs many people.
• Without advertising we would have less choice.
• Without advertising there would be higher unemployment.
• Advertising is a form of modern art.
• People enjoy adverts.
Negatives of Advertising
• Advertising manipulates people.
• It aims to persuade people that buying a product will make them happier.
• Advertisers focus on selling a brand image.
• They use glamorous, successful people.
• We now live in a consumer culture.
• We are persuaded to follow the latest trend.
• We are encouraged to associate certain brands with a higher status.
• Advertisers often aim their marketing at children.
• Children can easily be influenced by advertisements.
• Children put pressure on parents to buy them things.
Opinions about Advertising
• Advertising should be regulated.
• Advertising aimed at children should be controlled or even banned.
• Unhealthy foods should not be marketed in a way that attracts children.
• Products that can be risk to healthy should display warnings In some countries it is illegal to advertise cigarettes on television.
• Warnings must be displayed on cigarette packets however, advertising is necessary in free market economies.
• It creates demand for products.
• Governments should only censor false information or products that are harmful.
Arguments for Animal testing
• Animals are used in important scientific research.
• It is necessary to do medical tests on new drugs.
• Animal testing helps to advance medical and scientific knowledge.
• Many important medical discoveries involved experimentation on animals.
• Researchers aim to minimize the suffering that animals experience.
• Testing for the cosmetics industry is now banned in many countries.
Arguments against Animal Testing
• The benefits of research using animals do not justify the suffering caused.
• There are alternative methods of research.
• The lives of animals should be respected.
• Humans have no moral right to do experiments on animals.
Arguments for Vegetarianism
• Vegetarians do not eat foods that are produced by killing animals.
• Many people choose a vegetarian diet for moral or health reasons.
• A healthy diet is possible without eating meat.
• It is unnecessary to kill animal for food.
• A vegetarian diet may reduce the risk of disease like cancer.
• Many people question the treatment of animals in factory farms.
Arguments against Vegetarianism
• Vegetarians do not eat a balanced diet.
• In many cultures, meat is the main ingredient in traditional meals.
• Meat-eaters argue that animals are below humans in the food chain.
• It is completely natural for us to kill them for food.
• It is completely natural for us to kill them for food.
• Farms should produce organic food.
Positives of Zoos
• Zoos paly an important role in wildlife conservation.
• They can help to protect endangered species.
• Zoos allow scientists to study animals and their behavior.
• Zoos are educational, interesting and fun.
• Children, in particular, enjoy learning about animals.
• Zoos provide job opportunities.
Negatives of Zoos
• Zoo animals are kept in artificial environments.
• They are kept in cages or have limited space.
• Zoo animals rely on humans.
• They lose the freedom to hunt for food.
• They best way to save endangered species is by protecting natural habitats.
• Some people believe that zoos are unethical.
• Zoos exhibits animals with the aim of making money.
• We have no right to use animals for entertainment and profit.
Reasons for Urbanization
• People move to cities in search of job opportunities.
• Cities offer greater employment possibilities and a higher standard of living.
• People migrate to cities from the countryside.
• Traditional activities like farming need fewer workers nowadays.
Negatives of City Life
• Life in cities has its drawbacks.
• The cost of living is higher than in rural areas.
• Some people not manage to find work.
• Housing is usually much more expensive.
• Homelessness and poverty are common on cities.
• There is a gap between rich and poor.
• Life in cities can be extremely stressful.
• There are problems like traffic congestion and crime.
• Cities lack a sense of community.
• People do not even know their neighbor.
• Cities are sometimes described as "concrete jungles".
• Pedestrian zones in city center can improve the local environment.
• Banning cars encourages people to walk or cycle.
• Many European cities have built bicycle lanes.
• Dependence on cars is linked to health problems like obesity.
• People who walk or cycle regularly are generally healthier.
• Pedestrian areas are safer and more attractive for both residents and tourists.
Police and Crime Prevention
• The job of the polices is to catch criminals.
• They must also prevent crime and make communities safer.
• There should be an increase in the number of police officers on the streets.
• Police officers should be seen as part of the community.
• They should be involved with education and prevention.
• The police should be in close contact with schools.
• They should focus on young people who have dropped out of school.
• These teenagers may become involved with gangs.
• Fines are used as punishment for minor crimes.
• If the crime is more serious, prison is the most common punishment.
• Some criminals pose a threat to society.
• They are put in prison to ensure the safety of other citizens.
Negatives of Prisons
• Criminals are put together.
• They make friends with other offenders.
• Many prisoners re-offend when they are released.
• A criminal record makes finding a job more difficult.
• Another aim of prisons is rehabilitation.
• Prisoners receive education of vocational training.
• Prisoners should learn personal skills and specific job skills.
• Punishment could make prisoners' behavior worse.
• Rehabilitation aims to make them better citizens.
• Rehabilitated prisoners are less likely to re-offend.
Capital punishment: For
• Supporters say that capital punishment deters crime.
• Fear of the death penalty stops people from committing offences.
• The death penalty shows that crime is not tolerated.
• It is a form of revenge.
• The cost of imprisonment is avoided.
• The offender cannot pose a threat to others.
• Community service is a way to reform offenders.
• It could be a solution to prison overcrowding.
• It avoids the cost of imprisonment.
• It makes offenders useful in their local communities.
• They are required to clean streets or talk to school groups.
• Offenders repay their community.
• They avoid the negative influence that prison can have.
Against community service
• Community service is not a sufficient punishment.
• Criminals should be locked up, away from their victims.
Crime in the Media
• Crime is one of the main subjects of most news programs.
• The mass media focus on violent and sensational crimes.
• This lead to fear of crime among the public.
• Sensational stories attract more viewers or readers.
• The media report crime stories in order to increase their audience.
Benefits of education
• Education gives people knowledge and skills.
• People with qualification are more likely to find work.
• They can earn a higher salary.
• They can contribute positively to society.
• Schools aim to teach young people moral values such as tolerance and sharing.
• Schools prepare children to be members of a society.
Benefits of Studying Abroad
• Foreign institutions may offer better courses.
• Many students want to attend a prestigious university.
• The best universities employ teachers who are experts in their fields.
• Qualifications gained abroad can open the door to better job opportunities.
• Living abroad can broaden students' horizons.
• Overseas students are exposed to different cultures and customs.
• They become more independent.
• They are responsible for cooking, cleaning and paying bills.
• They will learn a foreign language.
Drawbacks of studying abroad
• Living and studying abroad can be difficult.
• Students have problems with paperwork such as visa applications.
• The language barrier can be a problem.
• Students have to find accommodation and pay bills.
• Studying in a foreign language is challenging.
• Living alone in an unfamiliar culture can cause homesickness.
Technology in Education: Advantages
• Technology is a powerful tool to engage students.
• Technology can make lessons much more interesting.
• Students can do research using online resources.
• Students can study at their own place.
• Adults can take distance learning courses.
• Students can study whenever and wherever they want.
• Students also learn skills which are useful for their future jobs for example, they learn to write reports using a word processor.
Technology in Education: Disadvantages
• People rely too much on computers.
• Young learners do not become proficient in some basic skills.
• They use word processors and spelling may suffer.
• People should be able to write a letter by hand.
• Technology is no substitute for a real teacher.
• Learners need a structured course.
• An experienced teacher knows what materials to choose.
• Computers are expensive to maintain and can be unreliable.
Technology in Education: Opinion
• Institutions should supplement traditional teaching with the use of technology.
• Technology is part of everyday life.
• It can enhance a teacher's lessons.
• Students can use online resources to help with homework.
• Students must still learn to write by hand.
• They should still use traditional sources of information such as books.
Education in Developing countries: Problems
• Children often have to work from an early age.
• There are no schools in many areas.
• Families do not have access to books or computers.
• Literacy rates are often low.
• People in developing countries need knowledge and skills.
• Education is the key to improving the economy of these countries.
Education in developing countries: Solutions
• Developed countries could help developing nations by providing money.
• They could invest in schools and technology.
• They could supply the funds to build schools and pay for teachers.
• Children need to have access to free schooling.
• Computer equipment could be donated.
• The Internet can expose students to a world of knowledge and information.
• Governments should make education compulsory for all children.
• They should encourage parents to send their children to school.
• Governments of developed and developing countries must work together.
Higher education: Advantages (also see "benefits of education")
• There are many benefits to going to university.
• A degree can open the door to better employment prospects.
• Economies are becoming increasingly knowledge-based.
• Most jobs require specific knowledge and skills.
• Skilled workers are needed for sectors such as information technology and engineering.
• Repetitive manual jobs are now done by machine.
• Many factories have moved to developing countries.
Higher education: Disadvantages
• A healthy economy needs a wide range of workers.
• Some manual workers will always be needed.
• A university degree is not necessary for many service professions.
• Practical training is more important in some industries.
• In the UK, for example, there is currently a shortage of plumbers Their services are therefore becoming more and more expensive.
Advantage of Home-schooling
• Some parents decide to educate their children at home.
• Some families live in isolated areas with poor transport.
• Other parents are not satisfied with local schools.
• Parents can respond to what their children need and how they learn best.
• One-to-one lessons allow much faster progress.
• The child can work at his or her own pace.
• Discipline problems are avoided by home-schooling.
Disadvantages of Home-schooling
• Most parents do not have the time to educate their children at home.
• One parent would need to give up work.
• School subjects are normally taught by up to ten different teachers.
• Most parents do not have the necessary knowledge or resources.
• Private tutors are expensive.
• Children will miss out on the social experience that school offers.
• At school, children learn how to get on with each other.
• Home-schooled children may lack social skills.
• Schools offer a better overall educational experience.
Bad behavior in schools: Causes
• Bad behavior is due to a lack of structure and discipline.
• There are too many children in some classes.
• Large classes are difficult to manage.
• May disruptive students come from an unstable family background.
• Other parents are too lenient and spoil their children.
• Some children are used to getting whatever they want.
• Schools can do very little if they are not supported by parents.
Bad behavior in schools: Solutions
• Schools need a clear code of conduct.
• Schools need a clear set of rules about behavior.
• They need to create a positive working atmosphere.
• Teachers must have the power to punish disruptive students.
• Schools should remove difficult children from lessons.
• Schools need to work closely with parents.
• Discipline could be lacking at home.
• Parents must support the school rules.
• They should take responsibility for their children's behavior.
Corporal Punishment: Opinion
• Corporal Punishment is not a good idea.
• Physical punishment is a way of controlling children using fear.
• This does not promote trust between adults and children.
• Children who are punished physically may become shy or resentful.
• Corporal punishment creates an atmosphere of fear and anger.
Single Sex Education: Advantages
• Some people believe that male and female students should go to separate schools.
• This is often for religious or cultural reasons.
• Discipline problems might be avoided by separating boys and girls.
• Boys and girls may learn in different ways and have different needs.
• Student at single-sex schools often get better exam grades.
Single-sex Education: Disadvantages
• Separating boys and girls is unnecessary.
• It is unhealthy in terms of children's social development.
• Many coeducational schools are extremely successful.
• A mixed-sex environment is more representative of real life.
• Coeducational schools provide children with better social skills for adult life.
Advantages of Streaming (grouping children according to ability)
• Some schools separate students according to their academic ability.
• Teachers can work at the right speed for their students.
• Teachers can plan more suitable lessons.
• High-level groups may progress faster.
• Lower level groups can benefits from a slower pace.
• Some teachers and parents support streaming for these reasons.
Disadvantages of Streaming
• Grouping by ability may have a negative impact on students.
• Children do not want to be seen as less intelligent than others.
• Streaming could damage students' self-esteem.
• They may lose motivation.
• Students from wealthier families tend to be better prepared.
• Children from poorer families may receive less support from parents.
• Mixed ability classes encourage everyone to achieve their potential.
Environment Global warming
• Gases such as carbon dioxide trap heat from the sun.
• This causes global temperatures to rise.
• This process is known as the greenhouse effect.
• Human activity is a major factor in the rise of the greenhouse gases.
• Factories and vehicles produce emissions and exhaust fumes.
• Many developing countries are becoming industrialized.
• The number of cars on our streets is growing.
• Cheap air travel is allowing more people to fly.
Effects of Global Warming
• Global warming will have a significant impact on our planet.
• Rising temperature will cause melting of the polar ice caps.
• Sea levels will rise.
• We can expect more extreme weather conditions.
• Flooding and droughts may become more common.
Impacts of humans on the environment
• The increasing world population is putting pressure on natural resources.
• Fossil fuels like oil and gas are running out.
• We are destroying wildlife habitats.
• We have cut down enormous areas of rainforest.
• This has led to the extinction of many species of animals and plants.
Solutions to environment problems
• Governments could introduce laws to limit emissions from factories.
• They should invest in renewable energy from solar, wind or water power.
• They could impose "green taxes" on drivers and airlines companies.
• Government campaigns should promote recycling.
• Natural areas and wild animals should be protected.
• Individuals should also try to be greener.
• We should take fewer flights abroad for holidays.
• We should take public transport rather than driving.
• We should choose products with less packaging.
• We should recycle as much as possible.
• The amount of waster we produce has increased.
• This problem is a result of our consumer culture.
• Products are not made to last.
• If something breaks, we throw it away and buy a new one.
• Advertisers encourage is to buy the newest fashions.
• Packaging is an important part of selling.
• Most foods are sold in non-biodegradable plastics packaging.
• The amount of household waste is growing.
• The amount of household waste is growing.
Litter / Littering
• People do not think about the consequences of dropping rubbish.
• They assume that somebody is pad to clean the street.
• Plastic packaging does not break down easily.
• Most of the litter seen on streets is fast food packaging.
Solutions to Littering: Recycling and other solutions
• Companies should make goods that last longer.
• They should not use so much packaging.
• Governments should be stricter, about waster produced by companies.
• They should put legal limits on packaging.
• Consumers should avoid buying over-packaged products.
• We should recycle and reuse useful materials.
• There are collection banks for glass, paper and plastic bottles.
• Households can use several rubbish bins to separate waste.
• Recycling saves energy and raw materials.
Nuclear Power: Positives
• There are several benefits to build more nuclear power stations.
• Fossil fuel like oil and gas are running out.
• Nuclear power is a sustainable energy source
• It can be used to produce electricity without wasting natural resources.
• It could be replace the use of natural resources like coal, oil or gas.
• Nuclear power stations are cleaner than fossil fuel power stations.
• They could help to reduce carbon emissions that cause global warming.
• The risks of accidents are being reduced.
Nuclear Power: Negatives
• Opponents of nuclear power worry about the safety of power stations.
• The building of new nuclear power stations is unpopular.
• Nobody wants to live near one.
• Nuclear waste disposal is a significant problem.
• There is currently no way to decontaminate radioactive material.
• People worry that terrorists could steal radioactive materials.
• It is safer to produce energy from solar, wind or water power.
• Families in many countries are not as large as they used to be.
• We tend to live in small nuclear families rather than large extended families.
• Parents tend to have fewer children.
• Young children are no longer expected to work.
• Nowadays both parents often work.
• It costs so much to bring children up.
• It is more difficult to raise a large family.
Working parents (also see "gender" topic)
• Children and their parents seem to be less close nowadays.
• Parents spend less time with their children.
• Women traditionally stayed at home to cook, clean and look after children.
• Nowadays both parents often work full time.
• Children may be left alone, or with nannies or babysitters.
• Busy parents have less contact with their children.
• Many families no longer eat meals together.
• Children spend more time with friends or surfing the Internet.
Negative effects on Children
• The lack of closeness in families can have a negative effect on children.
• Many parents have no idea how their children spend their time.
• Friends, television and the Internet become the main influence on children's behavior.
• Teenagers are influenced by peer pressure.
• Some of them join gangs.
• Juvenile delinquency is on the increase.
• Parents should be more involved with their children's upbringing.
• Young people need positive role models.
• In the past, divorce was unacceptable.
• It was considered to be embarrassing for a family.
• People stayed together for religious or family reasons.
• Divorce is more socially acceptable nowadays.
• It has become much more common.
• Divorce can be extremely stressful.
• Lone parents may face financial difficulties.
• Many single parents have to rely on benefits paid by the state.
• Divorce can have a negative effect on children.
• Children from single-parent families are more likely to get lower grades or drop out of school.
• The rise in divorce rates may be connected to some social problems.
Care for Old people
• Caring for elderly people was traditionally the responsibility of families.
• Adults had to look after their elderly parents.
• A woman's job was to stay at home taking care of her family.
• Nowadays, fewer elderly people are looked after by their relatives.
• Residential homes provide care for large number of elderly people.
• Some families are unable to look after elderly relatives.
• Families tend to be smaller these days, and women often have full-time jobs.
• Cares homes provide a professional service for senior citizens.
• Nurses are better trained than family members.
Care for Old people: Opinion
• The best form of care for the elderly depends on the family situation.
• It depends on whether family members have the time resources.
• We all have a responsibility towards the older people in our society.
• Governments should invest money in facilities and training for care workers.
Gender and education
• Men and women should have access to the same educational opportunities.
• Males and females should be accepted onto courses according to their abilities.
• It is wrong to discriminate against students because of their gender.
• Gender should be irrelevant in education.
• Student's achievements should depend on hard work and individual merit.
• In the UK, there are similar numbers of male and female students in higher education.
Gender and work
• Men and women should have access to the same professional opportunities.
• Both man and women should be able to pursue a career.
• They should earn equal salaries
• They should be employed according to their abilities, qualifications and experience.
• Traditionally women have been restricted to certain roles.
• They were often employed as secretaries or receptionists.
• Nowadays, a range of occupations is available to both sexes.
• Career success depends on individual merit.
Women's and Men's roles in the Family
• Some people argue that a mother should not work.
• She should stay at home and bring up her children.
• The father should be the breadwinner of the family.
• Others believe that both parents should share these responsibilities.
• Working women can take maternity leave during and after pregnancy.
• Many mothers continue to work after this period.
• Many fathers and mothers share their parenting and domestic responsibilities.
• They contribute equally to childcare, cooking and cleaning.
• Some women many have better career prospects than their husbands.
• Paternity leave and "househusbands" are becoming more common.
• Traditional gender roles and gradually changing.
• Families can divide roles and responsibilities in the most convenient way.
Positives of genetic engineering
• Genetic engineering is the practice of manipulating the genes of an organism.
• It is used to produce crops that are more resistant to insects and diseases.
• Some genetically modified crops grow more quickly.
• Some drugs and vaccines are produced by genetic engineering.
• It may become possible to change human's genetic characteristics.
• Scientists may use genetic engineering to cure diseases.
• Inherited illnesses would no longer exist.
• Genes could be changed before a baby is born.
• It could also be possible to clone human organs.
• We could all have replacement body part.
• Humans could live longer, healthier lives.
Negatives of genetic engineering
• There are ethical concerns about human genetic engineering.
• Parents might want to choose their children's characteristics.
• This would be unnatural.
• It would be unacceptable in most religions.
• Soldiers could be cloned from the genes of the strongest people.
• Clones might be used like robots to do certain jobs.
• Clones might even be developed just for organ replacements.
• Society and human evolution would change completely.
• Currently, human genetic engineering is prohibited.
Genetically-Modified (GM) foods: Advantages
• Farmers can produce crops that grow bigger and faster.
• Some GM crops are more resistant to disease or insects.
• This could be important for food production in developing countries.
• Faster growing cereals, fruit and vegetables will mean more profit.
• GM foods can be modified to look perfect.
• They may be more attractive to customers.
Genetically-Modified (GM) Foods: Disadvantages
• There may be risks involved in the genetic engineering of foods.
• GM crops might change whole ecosystems.
• Food chains could be broken if crops are resistant to predators.
• Organic foods are produced without chemicals or genetic modification.
• Organic farming may be slower and more expensive however, the environment is not damaged by fertilizers or pesticides.
Problems in developing countries
• Developing countries face a range if problems.
• Standards of healthcare and education are low.
• Life expectancy is usually lower than in developed countries.
• There is a lack of infrastructure, employment and good quality housing.
• Many people are forced to live in poverty.
• Food, drinking water and basic medicines are in short supply.
• How to help developing countries.
• The best form of help for developing countries is development aid.
• Richer nations can help by investing in long-term projects.
• Governments and charities can help by building new houses and schools.
• Globalization may also help developing countries.
• Multi-national companies can creating jobs in developing countries.
• On the other hand, many people emigrate to find work in richer countries.
• They often sand money back home to their families.
• This money helps to improve the standard of living in developing countries.
• Some people move to another countries in search of a better life.
• Many immigrants come from less developed countries.
• Richer, industrialized countries may offer opportunities for employment.
• Free healthcare and schooling are available in some developed countries.
• Other people migrate to a foreign country to improve their academic qualifications.
Positives of immigration and Multi-cultural societies
• From an economic perspective, immigration can be extremely positive.
• Many immigrants have skills that are needed in the country they move to.
• Immigrants who find work contribute to the economy of their new country.
• Many immigrants send money home to help family members.
• Immigration also creates cultural diversity.
• People of many different nationalities learn to live together.
• This can help people to become more open-minded and tolerant.
Negatives of Immigration
• Some people believe that immigrants take jobs that should go to local people.
• Some immigrant workers work longer hours for less money.
• Companies might pay lower salaries to immigrant workers.
• Unemployment rates could rise if there are too many immigrants
Opinions about Immigration
• Immigration can help the economy of a country.
• It can create multi-cultural societies however, immigration needs to be controlled
• In many countries, immigrants need visas or work permit.
• Governments should stop companies from exploiting immigrant workers.
• Foreign and local workers should have the right to equal pay and conditions.
Positives of Globalization
• Business of becoming increasingly international.
• Multi-national companies do business across the world.
• Companies like MacDonald's can be seen on high streets in most cities.
• Goods are produced in one country and sold in many others.
• A global economy means free trade between countries.
• This can strengthen political relationships.
• Globalization can also create opportunities for employment.
• It encourages investment in less developed countries.
• It could reduce poverty in the developing world.
Negatives of Globalization
• Globalization is not always beneficial to everyone.
• Companies can move to countries where labor is cheap.
• This creates redundancies, or job losses.
• Employees cannot be confident that they have stable jobs.
• Companies sometimes exploit their employees in developing countries.
• Global trade creates more waste and pollution.
The future of Globalization
• There should be global regulations for salaries and working conditions.
• Governments should impose laws to protect the environment.
What governments can do
• Governments provide public services like healthcare and education.
• They support people who are living in poverty or unable to work.
• Governments raise money by taxing working people.
• They can spend money on resources and campaigns.
• They can introduce new laws.
• They can impose taxes.
• They can raise people's awareness of issues (e.g. climate change/healthy eating).
• They can influence people's habits and opinions.
• They can create jobs.
• They can regulate the activities of companies such as banks.
• They can provide resources for schools.
• They are also responsible for the security and well-being of their citizens.
• They control armed forces and police forces
• Governments pay the salaries of public sector workers like police officers and teachers.
• The necessary money is raised by taxing people's income.
• Free education and healthcare may be provided by the state.
• Some governments control public transport systems and even TV channels.
• In other countries, these services are provided by private companies.
• Some people believe that competition between private companies is good.
• It helps to improve quality while bringing prices down.
• Other people think that essential services should be free.
• Governments should pay for them.
• Governments can censor what public sees or reads in the media.
• To a certain extent censorship is necessary.
• We should use censorship to protect children from violent images.
• Some computer games involve killing people or committing crimes.
• The Internet also needs to be controlled.
• Many websites show pornography and violence.
• There should be age limits for websites and computers games.
• Parents need to take responsibility for checking what their children watch.
• It is impossible for governments to control everything we see.
• Video cameras in public places.
• The use of CCTV is becoming widespread.
• Video cameras have been installed in many public places.
• They are supposed to protect us and deter criminals.
• Many people think that this surveillance violates our privacy.
• The authorities could build databases with our pictures and identities.
• We should not be treated like criminals.
Smart cards: Positives
• Governments will probably introduce a digital identification card system.
• Smart cards will have benefits and drawbacks.
• They could help to reduce crime.
• They could hold personal information, such as DNA.
• Digital bank cards could contain fingerprint information.
• It would be very difficult for criminals to use a stolen card.
• It would be easier for police to identify people and catch criminals.
Smart cards: Negatives
• Many people are worried about losing their privacy.
• Governments could store all our personal and medical information.
• This information could be used by insurance companies.
• Employers could check our health records.
People with Disabilities
• People with disabilities should be treated the same as everybody else.
• They should have the same rights as other people.
• They should have access to the same jobs as other citizens.
• Discriminations against disabled people is illegal in many countries.
• Ramps and lifts for wheelchairs should be installed in public buildings.
• Support teacher can be employed to help children with learning difficulties.
Why guns should be legal:
• In some countries, people are allowed to own firearms.
• Individuals have the right to protect themselves.
• People can use guns in self defense.
• This deters criminals.
Why gun ownership should be illegal:
• There is a risk of accidents with guns.
• The number of violent crimes increases when guns are available.
• Criminals may be armed.
• The police then need to use guns.
• Suicide rates have been shown to rise when guns are available.
• Guns create violent societies with high murder rates.
• Why polices should use guns.
• Many criminals use weapons.
• The threat of a gun can deter criminals.
• Police officers can forces a criminal to surrender.
• It is easier to arrest someone and avoid physical violence.
• The police may shoot violent criminals in self-defense.
• They can protect the public.
• They can shoot an escaping criminal who poses a serious danger to the public.
• Why police should not carry guns.
• There is a risk of accidents and mistakes.
• The police might shoot an unarmed criminal or an innocent person.
• Accidents can happen in public places.
• There are several alternatives to guns (e.g. tear gas, sprays and electric shock weapons).
• Only special police units should use guns.
Arm Trade: Positives
• The export of arms, or weapons, is an extremely controversial issue.
• Governments of rich, industrialized countries sell arms to each other.
• This industry creates jobs and wealth.
• The trade of weapons may improve relationships between governments.
Arms Trade: Negatives
• Weapons may be used in conflicts and wars.
• The supply of arms could be responsible for deaths.
• Governments are promoting war in order to make a profit.
• Rich countries can influence the politics of other nations.
• Nuclear weapons are capable of destroying whole cities.
• A nuclear war between two countries would destroy both countries.
• Nuclear weapons are used as a deterrent.
• They prevent wars from starting.
Nuclear weapons: Opinion
• Nuclear weapons should be prohibited.
• Governments should limit the production of nuclear weapons.
• There is a danger of nuclear weapons being obtained by terrorists.
• Nuclear weapons cannot be used against terrorist organizations.
Armed Forces: Positives
• Armed forces provide security and protection.
• They deter military attack by another country.
• They can also be sued to maintain peace within countries.
• They can be sued to give the police extra support.
• Soldiers are also used to help in emergency situations, such as after a natural disaster.
Armed forces: Negatives
• Armies require a lot of funding from governments.
• Too much money is spent on weapons and military technology.
• This money could be spent on schools, hospitals and other public services
• The human body requires a balanced diet.
• An unhealthy diet can cause various health problems.
• Obesity, diabetes and heart disease are on the increase.
• Many people nowadays rely on fast food or pre-prepared meals.
• These foods often contain too much fat, salt and sugar.
• They are cheap to buy and very easy to prepare.
• Many young people have grown up on a diet of convenience foods.
• Populations in developed countries are increasingly overweight.
• Regular exercise is essential in maintaining a healthy body.
• Exercise burns calories and helps to build healthy bones and muscles.
• Doctors advise exercising at least three times a week for 20 minutes.
• Most people nowadays lead a sedentary lifestyle.
• We tend to walk less and do desk jobs.
• Most adults relax by watching television.
• Children play video games rather than doing outdoor sports.
• In the past, people were more active in their jobs and at home.
• Governments have a significant role to play in reducing obesity.
• More and more people, including young children are seriously overweight.
• They are at risk of heart disease and diabetes.
• This situation will increase the burden on hospitals and taxpayers.
• Hospitals rely on the government for money and resources.
• Governments should promote a healthy diet and regular exercise.
• There should be more time for sports on school timetables.
• Unhealthy junk food should be banned from school menus.
• People need information about what foods contain.
• Food packaging must show the food's nutritional content.
• The British Government recommends eating five portions of fruit and vegetables per day.
State Health system: advantages
• Good healthcare should be available to everyone for free.
• State healthcare is paid by the government using money from taxes.
• Everyone has access to the same quality of care and treatment.
• Private healthcare is unfair because only wealthy people can afford it.
• The National Health Service in the UK provides free healthcare for every resident.
Private Healthcare: advantages
• State hospitals are often very large and difficult to run.
• Private hospitals have shorter waiting lists for operations and appointments.
• Patients can benefit from faster treatment.
• Many people prefer to pay for more a personal service.
• Patients have their own room and more comfortable facilities.
Alternative medicine: Positives
• People are increasingly using alternative medicines to treat illnesses for example, acupuncture can be used to treat backache.
• Herbal medicines can be used to treat allergies or viruses.
• Many patients report positive experiences with these treatments.
• Some traditional cures have been used for hundreds of years.
Alternative medicine: Negatives
• Many alternative medicines have not been tested scientifically.
• They may have no beneficial effect at all.
• They may cause unknown side effects.
• People should trust the opinions of qualified doctors.
• An illness could get worse without treatment from a doctor.
• Modern lifestyles are increasingly stressful.
• People work long hours with strict deadlines.
• Our busy lifestyles mean we have less time to relax.
• Unemployment is a major cause of stress.
• Children may be affected by their parents' relationship problems.
• Tests and exams can also cause stress.
How to reduce stress
• Stress can be reduced by taking regular exercise and eating a healthy diet.
• It is also important to get sufficient sleep and make leisure time a priority.
• People should work less overtime and take regular holidays.
• Schools have started to employ psychologists.
• They can offer emotional support to students.
• They can help students to cope with exam stress.
Housing and Architecture State / Council housing
• In some countries the government provides state or council housing.
• This helps people who cannot afford to buy their own house.
• It can be argued that state housing creates dependence on the government.
• People should be rely on the government to look after them.
• People have no incentive to earn money and buy their own home.
• Council properties are often made with cheap, poor-quality materials.
• Historic buildings are part of a country's heritage.
• They should be protected.
• Old buildings are often considered to be works of art.
• They give character to cities and attract tourists.
• They show us how people lived in the past.
• We identify countries by architectural symbols like the pyramids in Egypt Governments should spend money on looking after historic buildings.
• They need regular repairs and maintenance.
• New buildings should be designed to complement them.
• Modern buildings should be designed to be environmentally friendly.
• They should use less energy and produce less waste.
• Modern insulation can make houses more energy-efficient.
• Solar and wind power can be used to generate electricity.
• Rainwater and waste water can be recycled and used to flush toilets.
• Modern glass buildings take advantage if natural light.
English as an international language
• English is widely used around the world.
• It is becoming a global second language.
• It is the dominant language of technology, science and international business.
• International business meetings are regularly held in English.
• The most important textbooks and journals are published in English.
• The ability to speak English is a necessary skill in the modern world.
Negative of English as an International Language
• If one language is dominant, other languages may disappear.
• The dominant language brings its own culture.
• American culture has become popular around the world.
• Other cultures may be damaged.
• As an alternative to English, a new global language could be invented.
• It would have no nationality or culture attached to it.
• This could help to promote international peace and understanding.
• Esperanto is an example of a language that was invented with this aim.
Money and Society
• Society has become increasingly materialistic.
• People aspire to earn more money.
• They want a bigger house or a better car.
• We connect wealth and material possessions with happiness and success.
• Brands like "Armani" or "Mercedes" are status symbols.
• Advertising creates new desires and needs.
• It persuades us to buy the latest styles.
Positives of Consumerism
• Consumerism creates employment.
• It helps to reduce poverty.
• It encourages innovation and creativity in business.
• We live in a global economy.
• We have a better quality of life.
Negatives of Consumerism
• Consumerist societies create more waste.
• They use more natural resources.
• They cause damage to the environment.
• Consumerism creates a "throw-away" culture.
• Advertisers tell us who we are and what we want.
• Wealth does not lead to happiness.
• Materialism causes greed and crime.
• We should return to traditional values like sharing.
Personality & Happiness
• Happiness means different things to different people.
• It can be described as a feeling of pleasure or enjoyment.
• People enjoy spending time with family and friends.
• Hobbies, sports and games can be a source of fun and enjoyment.
• Some people see money as a source of happiness.
• Other people define happiness as something deeper.
• In order to be truly happy it is necessary to live a good life.
• We need to feel that we are doing something useful with our lives.
• Some people get a sense of achievement from their work.
• Others find happiness in bringing up their children.
• Religion or a sense of purpose can also be a source of happiness.
• People define success in different ways.
• Some people get a sense of achievement from raising a family.
• For others, success is defined by wealth or status.
• We often think of rich and famous people as being successful in life.
• Millionaires like Bill Gates are considered to be successful.
• They have risen to the top in their chosen professions.
• For some, being successful means achieving personal or professional goals.
• They see success as the result of hard work.
• Success in any field requires long-term planning and effort.
Nature or Nurture
• Some people believe that our personalities are determined mainly by genetics.
• We inherit our abilities and talents from our parents.
• Others think that our education and upbringing are more important.
• We develop according to the influences around us.
• Our personalities and achievements depend more on nurture than nature.
• Many people argue that we control our own destinies.
• We can shape our own personalities.
• By working hard we can achieve and goal that we put our minds to.
• Many successful people are "self-made".
• We are not limited by our genetic characteristic or upbringing.
Arguments against Professional/competitive sport
• Sport has become a business.
• Professional sport encourages people to compete for money.
• Many sports stars are only concerned about money and fame.
• Some athletes take drugs in order to win at any cost.
• Competitors are often selfish and rude.
• They are not good role models for children.
• All sports should be amateur.
• Sports should be leisure activities rather than jobs.
• People should do sporting activities for enjoyment and health reasons.
• Taking part is more important than winning.
Arguments for Professional sport
• Professional sports are the same as any other business.
• Many people are employed in the sports industry.
• People should be able to use their talents to earn a salary.
• Sports stars entertain millions of people.
• Money is necessary to improve facilities and train athletes.
• The level of professional sport is much higher than that of amateur sport.
Arguments for Competitive sport
• Competition is a natural instinct in humans.
• In daily life we compete to get jobs or the highest grades.
Sports are a safe form of competition
• Competition is healthy because it pushes us to give our best.
• Competitors and fans can release energy and aggression.
• Supporters of teams feel a sense of belonging to a community.
• Opinion: professional sport salaries are too high.
• Sports professionals earn too much money.
• They do not provide a vital service.
• Football players, for example, earn enormous salaries by simply kicking a ball.
• We could all live happily without professional football.
• Life would be difficult without doctors, engineers and other vital professionals.
• Society does not seem to value these professions as highly as professional sport.
• Sports salaries should be compatible with the wages most people earn.
Opinion: professional sport salaries are fair
• It is fair that the best professional earn a lot of money.
• Sport is a multi-million-pound industry.
• There is a large audience of sports fans.
• Sports on television attract many viewers.
• Sports stars have dedicated hours of practice to developing their fitness and skills.
• Only the most talented among them will reach the top.
• A sports career many only last 10 years.
• Sports fans are willing to pay to support their teams.
Sports and Politics
• Some people think that sport and politics should remain separate.
• Governments are involved in the hosting of sporting events such as the Olympics..
• These events attract investment and create jobs.
• The Olympic Games are an advertisement for the host nation.
• They attract huge numbers of visitors and sports fans.
• Wealthy countries tend to hold these events.
• Developing countries should be given the chance to become hosts.
Positives of Television
• Watching television is a good way to relax.
• It is many people's favorite way to wind down after a hard day at work.
• Television programs can be entertaining and enjoyable.
• Viewers have access to a huge variety of entertainment channels.
• Television brings the best comedians, musicians and actors into our homes.
• Programmers can also be informative and educational.
• News coverage makes the public aware of events around the world.
• Documentaries can make learning more interesting.
Negatives of Television
• Television is having a negative impact on society.
• Some people link violence on television with crime rates in the real world.
• Children copy the behavior they see on the screen.
• Children are less healthy because they spend less time playing.
• Advertisers direct their marketing at children.
• Most programs do not require much thought.
• Watching TV is a waste of time.
Opinions about Television
• Television has many benefits however, it can be addictive.
• Children should play outside rather than sit in front of a screen all day.
• Behavior shown on TV can influence people.
• Parents should choose carefully what their children watch.
• Children should not be exposed to violence, swearing or sexual images.
• Advertising during children's programs should be strictly controlled.
• TV companies should make more positive, educational programs.
Positives of the Internet
• There are many advantages to using the Internet.
• It gives us instant access to information on almost any subject.
• Shops and other services are now available online.
• People can buy goods and services from the comfort of their homes.
• The Internet is starting to replace other forms of entertainment.
• It has revolutionized communication.
• We can keep in touch by email or instant messenger services.
• Video messaging is becoming common for business meetings.
Negatives of the internet
• Many websites contain offensive content.
• Some sites show violent or sexual images.
• Parents find it difficult to control what their children see online.
• They do not always know who their children are chatting to.
• With so many websites it is difficult to search for good information.
• Criminals increasingly use the Internet to steal people's money.
• Internet compared to newspaper and books.
• Newspapers and books are now published online as well as in print.
• We can read the news in any language from any country in the world It costs nothing to publish or access information on the Internet.
• The Internet allows anybody to publish their own writing.
• Newspaper articles and books are written by professionals.
• Professionals produce better quality writing than amateur.
• People still buy newspapers and books because they are portable.
• People do not like reading from a screen.
Positives of Mobile Phones
• The mobile phone is the most popular gadget in today's world.
• Mobile phones have revolutionized the way we communicate.
• We can stay in touch with family, friends and colleagues wherever we are.
• Users can send text messages, surf the Internet, take photos and listen to music.
• Mobiles have also become fashion accessories.
Negatives of Mobile Phones
• Mobiles phones can be a problem in some public places.
• Ringing phones cause disturbance in cinemas and school lessons.
• Some people are not aware that others can hear their conversations.
• Mobile phones may also interfere with electronic equipment.
• Their waves could cause damage to our brains.
• Mobile phones can also be a dangerous distraction.
• Using a phone while driving reduces the driver's concentration.
• Mobile phones are a popular target for thieves.
Opinion about Mobile Phones
• The benefits of mobile phones outweigh the drawbacks.
• We need to use these phones with care.
Positives of Tourism
• Tourism is a popular leisure activity.
• People go on holiday to relax and have fun.
• Tourists can experience different cultures.
• They can sunbathe on beaches or go sight-seeing.
• Travelling abroad opens our minds.
• We can learn to speak other languages.
• The tourist trade is vital for some economies.
• It creates employment in services like accommodation, transport and entertainment.
• Some areas rely on tourism for their income.
• Tourists spend money.
• Tourism attracts investment from multi-national companies.
• It helps to improve the standard of living.
• Low-cost airlines are making it cheaper to travel abroad.
Negative effects of tourism
• Tourism can have a negative effect on the natural environment.
• The building of facilities and infrastructure can destroy the habitat of wild animals.
• Beautiful beaches are spoilt by the building of hotels.
• Tourism creates pollution and waste.
• It puts pressure on local resources.
• Local traditional and cultures may be endangered.
• A rise in the cost of living affects local people.
• The price of goods, services and housing may increase significantly.
The future of tourism
• Government should introduce laws to protect natural environments and local cultures.
• Tourism should have a low impact on wildlife.
• Renewable resources like solar or water power should be used.
• Waste should be recycled.
• Local businesses such as farms should be supported.
Traditional vs Modern Losing traditional skills
• Because of industrialization and global trade, many traditions have disappeared.
• Global advertising encourages everyone to buy the same products.
• Most products are now made in factories.
• Machinery has replaced skilled human labor.
• Factory work is boring and leaves people feeling unfulfilled.
• Goods are produced very quickly and in large numbers.
• Products are cheaper, which means that more people can buy them.
• Examples clothes are mass produced in standard size.
• People wear similar clothes, rather than traditional costume.
• Jeans and T-shirt are now worn throughout the world.
• Historic buildings took skilled craftsmen years to build.
• Modern concrete, steel and glass buildings are built in only weeks or months.
• There are fewer people who can create hand-made goods.
• Traditional customs are still important during weddings and religious festivals.
• People wear traditional costumers and eat special foods.
• It is important to maintain our different cultural identities.
• We should celebrate festivals, teach traditional skills and protect historic places.
• Traffic congestion is caused by commuters travelling to work.
• Most people live in the suburbs outside city center.
• Commuters tend to travel at the same time of day.
• They tend to travel alone.
• Cars and road space are not used efficiently.
• This causes traffic jams during the rush hour.
• In order to reduce traffic we should change our working habits.
• The internet can now be used to connect people.
• More people could work from home.
• Meetings can be held as video conferences.
• Workers could be given flexible timetables.
• Another solution would be to tax drivers.
• Workers should share their cars and travel together.
• In London, for example, there is a congestion charge.
• This helps to raise money for better public transport.
• Public transport needs to be reliable and efficient.
Positives of Public transport
• We need to reduce our dependence on cars.
• Parking a car can be extremely difficult in big cities.
• Well-designed transport systems are comfortable and convenient.
• Modern public transport can be fast and cheap.
• Public transport can help to reduce pollution in cities.
• Investment in buses and trains will ease traffic congestion.
• Buses can be given special lands to avoid traffic.
Negatives of Public transport
• Public transport if often slow and unreliable.
• Metro systems and trains are often dirty and crowded.
• People feel like "sardines in a car".
• Cars are much more comfortable.
• Driving while tired or drunk is extremely dangerous.
• Mobile phones can be a dangerous distraction for drivers.
• They draw the driver's attention away from the road.
• The use of phones while driving has been banned in many countries.
• Punishments are becoming stricter.
• Television campaigns are used to remind people to drive safely.
• Speed cameras have become more common.
• Speed bumps are another form of traffic calming.
• Many streets are designed with the aim of slowing traffic down.
Importance of clean water
• Water is as necessary natural resource.
• Humans need access to clean, safe drinking water in order to live.
• Poor water quality is a major cause of disease and death in some countries.
• Water usually needs to be treated before we can drink it.
• Developing countries often lack the means to treat and supply water to citizens.
• Developed countries tend to have much better sanitation.
• Citizens have access to clean tap water.
• Drinking water is not contaminated by sewage or waste water.
• The supply of clean water would improve public health in many developing countries.
• Urban life would be impossible without water supply systems.
• These systems are massive engineering projects.
• Many professionals are involved in their planning, construction and maintenance.
• The supply and distribution of water are major concerns.
• Water is becoming scarce in some countries.
• Areas that suffer droughts often need to import water.
• As populations grow, there is more pressure on water supplies.
• This could lead to a water crisis.
Water and politics
• The supply of water is also an important political issue.
• Huge amount of water are needed for agriculture and industry.
• The irrigation of crops accounts for a large proportions of water use.
• A water crisis could lead to political conflicts or even wars.
Argument for: Water should be free
• Some people believe that water should be free for everyone.
• Governments should supply water to all homes at no cost.
• Private companies should not be allowed to profit from this natural resource.
• Money from taxes can be used to pay for water supply systems.
Argument against: Water should not be free
• If water is free, people take it for granted.
• They do not think about how much water they waste.
• They leave taps running while washing or brushing their teeth.
• If we have to pay for water, we will use it more responsibly.
• Water supply systems are extremely expensive.
• Investment is needed to maintain and improve them.
• Private companies may provide a better service than governments.
• If they provide an efficient service, they will make more money.
• They will repair leaks to avoid losing money.
Bottled Water: Opinions
• Some people carry bottles of water wherever they go for example, they take bottles of water to work or to the gym.
• They believe that bottled water is healthier than tap water.
• They also argue that it tastes better however, other people believe that we should consume less bottled water.
• Plastic water bottles add to litter and waste problems.
• Companies should not be able to make a profit from water.
• It is unethical to make money by selling packaged water.
• There is no difference in quality between bottled and tap water.
The benefits of staying in the same job for life
• Employees have a stable career with one employer.
• They have a good pension and health insurance.
• Their salaries gradually increase.
• They may be promoted within the organization.
• They demonstrate loyalty.
• Experienced staff can be trusted with more responsibility.
• They become part of a team.
• There is a clearly defined path for development.
• The benefits of not staying in the same job.
• People often change jobs in order to further their career.
• Another company may offer a promotion or a higher salary.
The benefits of changing jobs
• People who change jobs can gain experience.
• They can learn different skills.
• Changing jobs is interesting and challenging.
• People can retrain in a different occupation.
• In a fast-changing world workers need to be flexible.
• People need to develop a range of experience and skills.
• Nowadays, it is easy to set up a company.
• The Internet provides a global marketplace.
• Self-employment offers greater freedom than working for a company however, there are risks to starting a new business.
• Self-employed people may face financial difficulties.
• Many businesses fail to make a profit.
• There is less stability in self-employment.
• There are no benefits like pensions, sick pay and holiday pay.
• Self-employment involved hard work, long hours and total responsibility.
• Unemployment is a big problem for individuals, communities and society.
• Some people are unable to find a job.
• They may not have the sufficient level of education or qualifications.
• They may find themselves homeless.
• Unemployment causes frustration and stress.
• Jobless people may become involved in crime as a means to get money.
• The unemployed need careers advice.
• Governments need to provide vocational courses and retraining.
Unemployment benefits: positives
• Some governments pay unemployment benefits in order to help jobless people.
• Unemployed people need financial support until they find a new job.
• By claiming benefits they can continue to pay for their homes.
• The benefits system helps to reduce poverty, homelessness and crime.
Unemployment benefits: negatives
• Some people claim benefits rather than working.
• They become dependent on the government.
• They are not motivated to find a job.
• The benefits system is a burden on taxpayers.
• All citizens should work to earn a living and support themselves.
• Receiving benefits affects people's self-esteem.
• It is important to achieve a balance between work time and leisure or family time.
• Too much work can result in stress and poor health “workaholics" may neglect their families and friends.
• People need to take regular holidays.
• Companies should be expect employees to work overtime.
• Nowadays, many people work part-time or have flexible working hours.
• Technology allow people to work from home.
• Many companies provide childcare facilities.
• A good work/ life balance can raise job satisfaction.
• Happy, healthy workers are more productive.
Technology and work
• Internet, fax and mobile phone technologies have revolutionized working life.
• Workers can communicate via email, online networks and video conferencing.
• Technology can connect workers in different countries.
• It gives people more freedom It can also save time and money.
• Some people believe that offices could disappear in the future.
• Virtual online offices may replace them.
• In some countries, children are exploited.
• They do repetitive jobs for very low pay.
• Children are often used in agriculture and factory work.
• The employment of children is prohibited in other countries.
• Many people think that children should be free to enjoy their childhood.
• Governments should make education a priority.
• They should build new schools.
• They should supply the resources to educate children.
• Children need to be given the knowledge and skills for adult life.